Plants & Butterflies

Plants in Ethiopia
Ethiopia's distinctive mammal fauna includes several genera found nowhere else including a primate, the Gelada (ARKive), as well as the Gray-tailed Narrow-headed Rat (iNaturalist), Nikolaus's Giant Climbing Mouse (Species New to Science), Yalden's Rat (Planet' Mammiferes), and the Ethiopian Water Mouse (BHL) (EDGE). Other endemic mammals include the Ethiopian Wolf (EWCP), the Mountain Nyala (ARKive), the Walia Ibex (ARKive), the Bale Mountains Vervet (ARKive), Starck's Hare (Trevor Hardaker), Blick's Grass Rat (ARKive), Lovat's African Climbing Mouse (ARKive), and the Big-headed Mole Rat (ARKive). Sometimes considered full species are Swayne's Hartebeest (BioLib), the Ethiopian Klipspringer (flickr), and the Ethiopian Highlands Bushbuck (BioLib).

Birds unique to Ethiopia include Ruspoli’s Turaco (ARKive), the Brown-faced Go-away-bird (HBW), the Blue-winged Goose (ARKive), Harwood’s Francolin (HBW), the Moorland Francolin (Coke & Sam Smith), the Yellow-fronted Parrot (WPT), the Spot-breasted Lapwing (HBW), the White-tailed Swallow (ARKive), the Ethiopian Bush-crow (ARKive), the Yellow-throated Seed-eater (HBW), the Ethiopian Siskin (HBW), the Ankober Serin (ARKive), the Ethiopian Pytilia (HBW), the Sombre Chat (HBW), the Abyssinian Longclaw (HBW), the Degodi Bushlark (ARKive), Erlanger's Lark (HBW), the Liben Lark (ARKive), and the Juniper Babbler (HBW).

Reptiles found only in Ethiopia include the Bale Mountains Heather Chameleon (Robin Moore), the Bale Mountains Two-horned Chameleon (p. 86 of pdf file), and the Ethiopian Mountain Chameleon (BioLib). Other endemic reptiles include the Ethiopian Girdled Lizard (iNaturalist), the Ethiopian Ridgeback Agama (BioLib), an agama Acanthocercus guentherpetersi (flickr), a leaf-toed gecko Hemidactylus awashensis (Species New to Science), the Ethiopian House Snake (BioLib), Böhme's Ethiopian Mountain Snake (BioLib), the Ethiopian Mountain Adder (flickr), another viper Bitis harenna (NHM-London), and the Highland Beak Snake (BioLib).

Amphibian genera restricted to Ethiopia include Malcolm's Ethiopian Toad Altiphrynoides (ARKive), the Ethiopian Short-headed Frog Balebreviceps (ARKive), the Kouni Valley Striped Frog Paracassina (AmphibiaWeb), the Bale Mountains Frog Ericabatrachus (ARKive), and the Aleku Caecilian Sylvacaecilia (ARKive). Other endemic amphibians include the Badditu Forest Treefrog Leptopelis gramineus (eol), the Ethiopian Snout-burrower Hemisus microscaphus (BioLib), the Ethiopian Banana Frog Afrixalus enseticola (ARKive), Neumann's Grassland Frog Ptychadena neumanni (eol), and the Tiny River Frog Phrynobatrachus minutus (eol).
The species of Lake Tana barbs (see p. 18 of Wageningen UR Digital Library 5 MB pdf file) are a spectacular example of adaptive radiation and include Barbus humilis (FishBase) and Barbus tanapelagius (FishBase). The Ethiopian Loach Nemacheilus abyssinicus (BHL) is the only representative of the family in Africa. Other endemic freshwater fish species include the Small-scaled Ethiopian Barb Barbus ethiopicus (BHL), the recently described Garra tana (FishBase), Nannaethiops bleheri (Senckenberg pdf file), a cichlid Danakilia franchettii (Cichlid Room Companion), an elephantfish Marcusenius annamariae (Mormyridae), a mochokid catfish Chiloglanis modjensis (ACSI), and the Lake Afdera Killifish Lebias stiassnyae (BioOne).

Butterflies known solely from Ethiopia include Charaxes galawadiwosi (Learn About Butterflies), Charaxes phoebus (BOLD), Acraea oscari (Dominique Bernaud), and Acraea guichardi (Dominique Bernaud). Other endemic insects include an owlet moth Batuana rougeoti (StampData), the dragonflies Atoconeura aethiopica (ARKive) and Notogomphus cottarellii (ARKive), the damselflies Elattoneura pasquinii (ARKive) and Ischnura abyssinica (ARKive), an ant Hypoponera exigua (AntWiki), a mantis Sphodromantis aethiopica (BioLib), a bush cricket Tropidonotacris amabilis (OSF), the longhorned beetles Sternotomis caillaudi (BioLib) and Gennarus ornatus (Cerambycidae), and several flower beetles: Hegemus pluto (Flower Beetles), Compsocephalus dmitriewi (Flower Beetles), Pachnoda abyssinica (Flower Beetles), and Centrantyx nitidus (Flower Beetles).
Other endemic invertebrates include the freshwater snails Bulinus octoploidus (Google Books) and Ancylus ashangiensis (fig. 19 at Internet Archive), a freshwater mussel Unio abyssinicus (MUSSELp), the scorpions Buthus awashensis (BioLib) and Pandinus trailini (BioLib), a spider Singafrotypa subinermis (Species-ID), a freshwater crab Potamonautes kundudo (p. 4 of Naturalis pdf file), and a cace-dwelling isopod crustacean Skotobaena mortoni (figs. 19 & 20 on p. 6 of AToL Decapoda pdf file).

Among the many vascular plant species restricted to Ethiopia ( pdf file) are the orchids Holothrix unifolia (Google Books) and Habenaria vollesenii (JSTOR), a red hot poker Kniphofia foliosa (flickr), a giant lobelia Lobelia rhynchopetalum (flickr), Cibirhiza spiculata (ARKive), an aroid Amorphophallus gomboczianus (IAS), Gladiolus balensis (IUCN pdf file), a spurge Euphorbia makallensis (, Aloe welmelensis (Kew), Carduus macracanthus (eol), Impatiens rothii (Harry Jans), Sedum baleensis (flickr), Echinops kebericho (Prelude), Senecio nanus (East African Plants), Erythrina brucei (JSTOR), Helichrysum gofense (Harry Jans), Urtica simensis (Famine Food Field Guide), and the recently discovered Acacia fumosa (ARKive). Endemic genera include Chiliocephalum (eol), Hypagophytum (JSTOR), Nephrophyllum (JSTOR), Afrovivella (Københavns Univ.) (fig. D on p. 4 of Univ. Wien pdf file), and Leptagrostis (JSTOR).

Portions of Ethiopia are included in the Eastern Afromontane (CEPF) and the Horn of Africa (CEPF) biodiversity hotspots. Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Ethiopian Montane Moorlands (WWF) and the Ethiopian Montane Grasslands and Woodlands (WWF). Lake Tana (FEOW) and the Ethiopian Highlands (FEOW) are important freshwater ecoregions



List of butterflies in Ethiopia

This is a list of butterflies of Ethiopia. About 376 species are known from Ethiopia, 33 of which are endemic.

Axiocerses argenteomaculata Pagenstecher, 1902
Axiocerses jacksoni Stempffer, 1948
Hypolycaena ogadenensis Stempffer, 1946
Hypolycaena philippus (Fabricius, 1793)
Leptomyrina boschi Strand, 1911
Iolaus diametra (Karsch, 1895)
Iolaus glaucus Butler, 1886
Iolaus jacksoni (Stempffer, 1950)
Iolaus mimosae berbera (Bethune-Baker, 1924)
Iolaus tajoraca Walker, 1870
Iolaus sudanicus Aurivillius, 1905
Iolaus menas Druce, 1890
Iolaus ismenias piaggiae Oberthür, 1883
Iolaus crawshayi maureli Dufrane, 1954
Stugeta bowkeri ethiopica Stempffer & Bennett, 1958
Pilodeudorix obscurata (Trimen, 1891)
Deudorix dinochares Grose-Smith, 1887
Deudorix lorisona baronica Ungemach, 1932
Anthene amarah (Guérin-Méneville, 1849)
Anthene aurobrunnea (Ungemach, 1932)
Anthene butleri butleri (Oberthür, 1880)
Anthene butleri galla Stempffer, 1947
Anthene collinsi d'Abrera, 1980
Anthene contrastata (Ungemach, 1932)
Anthene crawshayi minuta (Bethune-Baker, 1916)
Anthene definita nigrocaudata (Pagenstecher, 1902)
Anthene hodsoni (Talbot, 1935)
Anthene indefinita (Bethune-Baker, 1910)
Anthene janna Gabriel, 1949
Anthene kersteni (Gerstaecker, 1871)
Anthene opalina Stempffer, 1946
Anthene otacilia dulcis (Pagenstecher, 1902)
Anthene pitmani Stempffer, 1936
Anthene princeps (Butler, 1876)
Anthene rothschildi (Aurivillius, 1922)
Anthene saddacus (Talbot, 1935)
Anthene schoutedeni (Hulstaert, 1924)
Anthene suquala (Pagenstecher, 1902)
Anthene wilsoni (Talbot, 1935)
Anthene gemmifera (Neave, 1910)
Lycaena phlaeas pseudophlaeas (Lucas, 1866)
Cupidopsis jobates mauritanica Riley, 1932
Colias electo pseudohecate Berger, 1940
Colias marnoana Rogenhofer, 1884
Colotis antevippe zera (Lucas, 1852)
Colotis aurora evarne (Klug, 1829)
Colotis celimene celimene (Lucas, 1852)
Colotis celimene praeclarus (Butler, 1886)
Colotis chrysonome (Klug, 1829)
Colotis daira stygia (Felder & Felder, 1865)
Colotis danae eupompe (Klug, 1829)
Colotis danae pseudacaste (Butler, 1876)
Colotis euippe exole (Reiche, 1850)
Colotis evenina casta (Gerstaecker, 1871)
Colotis halimede halimede (Klug, 1829)
Colotis halimede restricta Talbot, 1939
Colotis hetaera aspasia (Ungemach, 1932)
Colotis hetaera lorti (Sharpe, 1896)
Colotis liagore (Klug, 1829)
Colotis phisadia phisadia (Godart, 1819)
Colotis phisadia ocellatus (Butler, 1886)
Colotis pleione heliocaustus (Butler, 1886)
Colotis protomedia (Klug, 1829)
Colotis rogersi (Dixey, 1915)
Colotis ungemachi (Le Cerf, 1922)
Colotis venosa (Staudinger, 1885)
Colotis vesta (Reiche, 1850)
Colotis vestalis castalis (Staudinger, 1884)
Colotis agoye zephyrus (Marshall, 1897)
Eronia cleodora Hübner, 1823
Eronia leda (Boisduval, 1847)
Pinacopterix eriphia melanarge (Butler, 1886)
Pinacopterix eriphia tritogenia (Klug, 1829)
Nepheronia buquetii (Boisduval, 1836)
Nepheronia thalassina sinalata (Suffert, 1904)
Euchloe belemia abyssinica Riley, 1928
Leptosia alcesta inalcesta Bernardi, 1959
Leptosia alcesta pseudonuptilla Bernardi, 1959
Appias epaphia contracta (Butler, 1888)
Appias phaola intermedia Dufrane, 1948
Appias sabina (Felder & Felder, 86)
Appias sylvia abyssinica Talbot, 1932
Pieris brassicoides Guérin-Méneville, 1848
Pontia daplidice aethiops (de Joannis & Verity, 1913)
Pontia distorta (Butler, 1886)
Pontia glauconome Klug, 1829

Mylothris agathina (Cramer, 1779)
Mylothris erlangeri Pagenstecher, 1902
Mylothris jacksoni nagichota Talbot, 1944
Mylothris mortoni mortoni Blachier, 1912
Mylothris mortoni balkis Ungemach, 1932
Mylothris rubricosta (Mabille, 1890)
Mylothris rueppellii (Koch, 1865)
Mylothris sagala swaynei Butler, 1899
Mylothris yulei amhara Ungemach, 1932
Dixeia charina septentrionalis Bernardi, 1958
Dixeia dixeyi (Neave, 1904)
Dixeia doxo venatus (Butler, 1871)
Dixeia orbona vidua (Butler, 1900)
Dixeia pigea (Boisduval, 1836)
Belenois aurota (Fabricius, 1793)
Belenois creona creona (Cramer, 77)
Belenois creona boguensis (Felder & Felder, 1865)
Belenois gidica abyssinica (Lucas, 1852)
Belenois gidica hypoxantha (Ungemach, 1932)
Belenois raffrayi (Oberthür, 1878)
Belenois solilucis loveni (Aurivillius, 1921)
Belenois subeida hailo (Ungemach, 1932)
Belenois thysa tricolor Talbot, 1943
Belenois zochalia galla (Ungemach, 1932)

Spalgis lemolea Druce, 1890
Lachnocnema abyssinica Libert, 1996
Lachnocnema emperamus (Snellen, 1872)
Lachnocnema divergens Gaede, 1915
Alaena johanna Sharpe, 1890
Pentila pauli ras Talbot, 1935
Myrina silenus nzoiae d'Abrera, 1980
Chloroselas esmeralda Butler, 1886
Chloroselas pseudozeritis (Trimen, 1873)
Cigaritis avriko (Karsch, 1893)
Cigaritis somalina (Butler, 1886)
Axiocerses harpax kadugli Talbot, 1935
Axiocerses amanga (Westwood, 1881)
Axiocerses maureli Dufrane, 1954